By D M Brink; G R Satchler
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Preheating the fuel is undesirable, because, as described above, it is then more diﬃcult to compress it. Avoiding preheat is especially necessary if a laser is used as driver. However, to avoid preheat the pulse shape can be chosen in such a way that the appearance of undesirable additional shocks is avoided to some degree. Nevertheless, shock waves can not completely be prevented if one wants to build up the pressure in a reasonable time. Therefore a lowpower prepulse is used and a succession of increasingly intense pulses can then accelerate the fuel nearly isentropically (for a detailed description see Section 2).
However, because the light from the ﬂash lamp is not monochromatic, only a small proportion of the incident photons will be suitable for exciting the atoms. Therefore it is desirable that this upper level has a large linewidth with a wide frequency range so that a high eﬃciency in converting the light from the ﬂash lamps into excitation of the atoms can be achieved. The excited atoms decay rapidly from level 3 to level 2. In contrast to level 3, this level 2 should have a narrow line width combined with a relatively long lifetime.
2), so that on a large scale the plasma will be, on average, charge-neutral. The Debye length λD is the characteristic distance beyond which a charge is completely shielded from the eﬀects of the surrounding charges. 2. Schematic picture of Debye shielding. 1) where 0 is the dielectric constant. It follows that for a system to be quasineutral, the system size has to be considerably larger than this Debye length, because Debye shielding only works if there are a suﬃcient number of electrons around the ion.