Download An Introduction to R by William N. Venables, David M. Smith PDF

By William N. Venables, David M. Smith

This handbook presents an advent to "R", a software program package deal for statistical computing and photographs. R is loose software program, allotted lower than the GNU common Public License. it may be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft home windows.

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The requirements for fitting statistical models are sufficiently well defined to make it possible to construct general tools that apply in a broad spectrum of problems. R provides an interlocking suite of facilities that make fitting statistical models very simple. As we mention in the introduction, the basic output is minimal, and one needs to ask for the details by calling extractor functions. 1 Defining statistical models; formulae The template for a statistical model is a linear regression model with independent, homoscedastic errors p yi = βj xij + ei , ei ∼ NID(0, σ 2 ), i = 1, .

Another way to do this, now putting all plots on the one display, is as follows: > xc <- split(x, ind) > yc <- split(y, ind) > for (i in 1:length(yc)) { plot(xc[[i]], yc[[i]]); abline(lsfit(xc[[i]], yc[[i]])) } (Note the function split() which produces a list of vectors obtained by splitting a larger vector according to the classes specified by a factor. This is a useful function, mostly used in connection with boxplots. ) 1 to be discussed later, or use xyplot from package lattice. Chapter 9: Grouping, loops and conditional execution 41 Warning: for() loops are used in R code much less often than in compiled languages.

Put the other way round, a generic function performs a task or action on its arguments specific to the class of the argument itself. If the argument lacks any class attribute, or has a class not catered for specifically by the generic function in question, there is always a default action provided. An example makes things clearer. The class mechanism offers the user the facility of designing and writing generic functions for special purposes. Among the other generic functions are plot() 3 So it is hidden under UNIX.

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