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By Chuka Onwumechili

Onwumechili presents a thrilling point of view on African army coups and reminds us that democracy isn't really synonymous exclusively with Western societies. He examines democracies in conventional Africa and indicates how those socieites sincerely outlined and restricted the jobs of conventional African armies.From this history, Onwumechili makes readers delight in that smooth African armies are deviant associations, with out roots in conventional Africa. particularly, he argues, one has to hunt these roots in Africa's fresh, colonial background. Dr. Onwumechili is going directly to describe the explanations for coups and their strategies. ultimately, he examines how army coups may be avoided. whereas past options have principally failed, Onwumechili offers convincing suggestions according to case experiences.

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Also, there have been reports of violence against journalists even though the press is widely free. In 1994, for instance, a radio journalist (Victor Randrianirina) was beaten to death for reporting on the smuggling of sapphires. African Democratization and Military Coups 30 Mali Mali has been independent of French colonial mle since 1960, and the country's first leader was Modibo Keita of the Union Soudanaise party. Keita was an avowed socialist but this ideological practice soon put his country into severe economic distress, which prompted the first Mali an coup of 1968, led by Captain Yoro Diakite and Lieutenant Moussa Traore.

Ghana Ghana has had several elected governments repeatedly interrupted by military coups beginning in 1966 when Ghana's first post-independence leader, Kwame Nkrumah, was overthrown. Additional military coups took place in 1972, 1978, 1979, and 1981. The last one in 1981 was the second led by military strongman Jerry Rawlings, who later quit the military to contest successfully in the 1993 democratic elections. He began his second term as president after winning the 1996 elections. Ghana, like every other democratic country in Africa, presently allows elections, which is one of the core democratic principles.

In fact, several of the principles are similar. What is different is the context in which the principles are practiced. Modern-day African administrations rule very large nations compared to the small communities we described in Chapter 1. Even ancient African kingdoms, which we also described in the previous chapter, did not have the complex administrations required in today's world. The differences in size and administrative complexity affect how democratic principles may be applied or practiced.

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