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Extra info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides

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It has been used for measuring alpha-particle, beta-particle, and photon activities, but is now considered unsuitable 18 / INTRODUCTION for direct beta-particle standardization, because of the large errors introduced by scattering. Bambynek (1967) states, however, that for alpha particles with energies of several MeV, and for photons in the range of energy of 1 to 80 keV, accuracies of within f O . l percent for alpha particles and k 1 percent for photons are attainable. , (1966) and Bambynek (1967) to standardize alpha-particle and low-energy photon sources.

105 cm (Stnub. 1953). shape measured on the wire of a proportional counter is essentially determined by the movement of the positive ions. Since, in a proportional counter, most of the ionization develops very close to the wire, the electrons travel only short distances and their effect on the pulse rise is rather small. Figure 8 shows a typical pulse shape. A delay, of time t,, elapses before the primary electrons reach the multiplication region. 2 PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS / 27 Fig. 8. Voltage pulse from proportional counter.

A further spread can also be caused by a nonuniform center wire and by end-effects, both of which cause varying field distributions along the wire. However, in most cases the shape of the outer electrode is unimportant, because multiplication takes place very close to the anode wire, where the electric field gradient is highest (Eq. 1). Asymmetric shapes of the outer electrode may result, however, in significant variation in electron-collection times from different regions of the sensitive volume of the counter.

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